Lactation: Caution advised or effect undetermined. Contraindications: Respiratory depression raised intracranial pressure head Injectionury or pathological brain conditions acute asthma heart failure secondary to chronic lung disease porphyria. Narcotic dependence acute alcoholism.
Pregnancy: Positive evidence of risk: Use only when no safer alternative exists for a serious problem.
Moderate to severe pain.
Sedation dizziness nausea. Psychotomimetic effects vomiting sweating.
Precautions: Impaired renal hepatic or respiratory function. History of seizures phaeochromocytoma recent Ml hypothyroidism adrenocortical insuficiency
prostatic hypertrophy IBS cholecystitis pancreatitis unidentifined abdominal pain. Conditions where altered vascular resistance or BP is undesirable. Risk of tolerance
and dependence. Elderly.